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S2_E4_Video_Critical Thinking: Being a Warrior of the Mind

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Manage episode 388251613 series 3506717
Innehåll tillhandahållet av Warrior’s Ascent. Allt poddinnehåll inklusive avsnitt, grafik och podcastbeskrivningar laddas upp och tillhandahålls direkt av Warrior’s Ascent eller deras podcastplattformspartner. Om du tror att någon använder ditt upphovsrättsskyddade verk utan din tillåtelse kan du följa processen som beskrivs här https://sv.player.fm/legal.

We all like to think that we are creatures of logic, making rational decisions at every turn. The truth is that we are governed more by emotion than we'd like to believe. Have you ever just "gone with your gut" or just felt something was amiss? Sometimes this is System 1 kicking in at a subconscious level deferring to past experience and recognized patterns. Sometimes it's correct and serves you well by averting disaster but sometimes it leads you astray. When this is the case we must engage our System 2 critical thinking skills. Critical thinking is an essential skill, one that is becoming less prevalent in our society. In many regards, emotionalism has replaced rationalism. This pertains to both internal and external dialogue and argumentation which can lead to a variety of issues both at an individual and societal level. But what are the obstacles to critical thinking and logical decision-making? Why isn't it as easy and straightforward as it seems? We'll discuss the impediments to critical thinking and reasoning in this episode in an effort to discipline your thought processes.

Cognitive Distortions: From CBT

A cognitive distortion is an exaggerated or irrational thought pattern involved in the onset or perpetuation of psychopathological states, such as depression and anxiety. Cognitive distortions are thoughts that cause individuals to perceive reality inaccurately. According to Aaron Beck's cognitive model, a negative outlook on reality, sometimes called negative schemas (or schemata), is a factor in symptoms of emotional dysfunction and poorer subjective well-being. Specifically, negative thinking patterns reinforce negative emotions and thoughts.

Cognitive Distortion

Example

All-or-none thinking

“I never do things right”

Overgeneralizing

“I overslept today because I’m such an irresponsible person”

Minimizing positives

“A month of sobriety is no big deal”

Maximizing negatives

“I missed a payment on my car, so I’ll never have good credit”

Shoulds and musts

“I should never be late for anything”

Labeling

“I am such a loser”

Emotional reasoning

“I felt guilty putting my child in time-out, so I must have done it wrong”

Fortune telling

“If I go to that event, I’ll probably be anxious the whole time”

Selective abstractions

“It’s my fault that people at the party didn’t have fun”

Finally, many of us engage in emotional reasoning, a process in which our negative feelings about ourselves inform our thoughts, as if they were factually based, in the absence of any facts to support these unpleasant feelings. In other words, your emotions and feelings about a situation become your actual view of the situation, regardless of any information to the contrary. (mention Coddling of the American Mind by Jonathan Haidt)

-Daily Thought Record as a means to correct

Logical Fallacies:

A logical fallacy is a flaw in reasoning that makes an argument invalid, unsound, or misleading. It's important to identify and understand logical fallacies because they can weaken the strength of an argument and lead to erroneous conclusions. Here is a list of some common logical fallacies along with explanations for each:

  1. **Ad Hominem**

*Description*: This fallacy attacks the person making the argument rather than addressing the argument itself. It focuses on personal characteristics, irrelevant to the issue at hand.

*Example*: "You can't trust John's opinion on politics; he's never even been to college."

  1. **Straw Man**

*Description*: This fallacy involves misrepresenting or distorting an opponent's argument to make it easier to attack. It's like setting up a weaker version of the argument to knock down.

*Example*: "People who oppose stricter gun control laws just want a society with no rules and everyone carrying guns all the time."

  1. **Appeal to Authority**

*Description*: This fallacy relies on the testimony of an authority figure, rather than providing solid evidence or reasoning.

*Example*: "Dr. Smith says that climate change is a hoax, so it must be true."

  1. **Circular Reasoning (Begging the Question)**

*Description*: This occurs when the conclusion of an argument is assumed in the premise, essentially restating the same idea in different words.

*Example*: "God exists because the Bible says so, and we know the Bible is true because it's the word of God."

  1. **False Dilemma (False Dichotomy)**

*Description*: This fallacy presents only two options when there are actually more available. It oversimplifies a complex situation.

*Example*: "You're either with us or against us."

  1. **Hasty Generalization**

*Description*: This involves making a sweeping generalization based on insufficient evidence. It draws a conclusion about a whole group based on a small sample size.

*Example*: "I met one rude person from that country, so everyone from there must be rude."

  1. **Appeal to Ignorance**

*Description*: This fallacy claims that a statement must be true because it hasn't been proven false, or vice versa.

*Example*: "No one has proven that ghosts don't exist, so they must be real."

  1. **Post Hoc (False Cause)**

*Description*: This fallacy asserts that because one event occurred after another, the first event must have caused the second. It assumes causation without adequate evidence.

*Example*: "I wore my lucky socks and we won the game, so my socks must be lucky."

  1. **Slippery Slope**

*Description*: This fallacy suggests that a particular event will set off a chain reaction, leading to a much larger, usually negative, outcome.

*Example*: "If we allow same-sex marriage, next people will want to marry animals."

  1. **Red Herring**

*Description*: This involves diverting attention away from the main issue by introducing an unrelated topic or argument.

*Example*: "We should focus on solving unemployment, not on healthcare reform."

  1. **Appeal to Emotion**

*Description*: This fallacy attempts to manipulate emotions (fear, pity, love, etc.) in order to win an argument, often without providing any substantial evidence.

*Example*: "If we don't pass this law, think of all the children who will suffer!"

  1. **Genetic Fallacy**

*Description*: This fallacy involves judging the merit of an idea or claim based on its origin or source.

*Example*: "You shouldn't read that book, it was written by a criminal."

Recognizing logical fallacies is an important skill in critical thinking and argumentation. It helps ensure that arguments are based on sound reasoning and evidence rather than misleading tactics.

Key takeaways:

Cognitive distortions: exaggerated or irrational thought pattern

Logical fallacies: Flaws in reasoning that make an argument invalid

  continue reading

62 episoder

Artwork
iconDela
 
Manage episode 388251613 series 3506717
Innehåll tillhandahållet av Warrior’s Ascent. Allt poddinnehåll inklusive avsnitt, grafik och podcastbeskrivningar laddas upp och tillhandahålls direkt av Warrior’s Ascent eller deras podcastplattformspartner. Om du tror att någon använder ditt upphovsrättsskyddade verk utan din tillåtelse kan du följa processen som beskrivs här https://sv.player.fm/legal.

We all like to think that we are creatures of logic, making rational decisions at every turn. The truth is that we are governed more by emotion than we'd like to believe. Have you ever just "gone with your gut" or just felt something was amiss? Sometimes this is System 1 kicking in at a subconscious level deferring to past experience and recognized patterns. Sometimes it's correct and serves you well by averting disaster but sometimes it leads you astray. When this is the case we must engage our System 2 critical thinking skills. Critical thinking is an essential skill, one that is becoming less prevalent in our society. In many regards, emotionalism has replaced rationalism. This pertains to both internal and external dialogue and argumentation which can lead to a variety of issues both at an individual and societal level. But what are the obstacles to critical thinking and logical decision-making? Why isn't it as easy and straightforward as it seems? We'll discuss the impediments to critical thinking and reasoning in this episode in an effort to discipline your thought processes.

Cognitive Distortions: From CBT

A cognitive distortion is an exaggerated or irrational thought pattern involved in the onset or perpetuation of psychopathological states, such as depression and anxiety. Cognitive distortions are thoughts that cause individuals to perceive reality inaccurately. According to Aaron Beck's cognitive model, a negative outlook on reality, sometimes called negative schemas (or schemata), is a factor in symptoms of emotional dysfunction and poorer subjective well-being. Specifically, negative thinking patterns reinforce negative emotions and thoughts.

Cognitive Distortion

Example

All-or-none thinking

“I never do things right”

Overgeneralizing

“I overslept today because I’m such an irresponsible person”

Minimizing positives

“A month of sobriety is no big deal”

Maximizing negatives

“I missed a payment on my car, so I’ll never have good credit”

Shoulds and musts

“I should never be late for anything”

Labeling

“I am such a loser”

Emotional reasoning

“I felt guilty putting my child in time-out, so I must have done it wrong”

Fortune telling

“If I go to that event, I’ll probably be anxious the whole time”

Selective abstractions

“It’s my fault that people at the party didn’t have fun”

Finally, many of us engage in emotional reasoning, a process in which our negative feelings about ourselves inform our thoughts, as if they were factually based, in the absence of any facts to support these unpleasant feelings. In other words, your emotions and feelings about a situation become your actual view of the situation, regardless of any information to the contrary. (mention Coddling of the American Mind by Jonathan Haidt)

-Daily Thought Record as a means to correct

Logical Fallacies:

A logical fallacy is a flaw in reasoning that makes an argument invalid, unsound, or misleading. It's important to identify and understand logical fallacies because they can weaken the strength of an argument and lead to erroneous conclusions. Here is a list of some common logical fallacies along with explanations for each:

  1. **Ad Hominem**

*Description*: This fallacy attacks the person making the argument rather than addressing the argument itself. It focuses on personal characteristics, irrelevant to the issue at hand.

*Example*: "You can't trust John's opinion on politics; he's never even been to college."

  1. **Straw Man**

*Description*: This fallacy involves misrepresenting or distorting an opponent's argument to make it easier to attack. It's like setting up a weaker version of the argument to knock down.

*Example*: "People who oppose stricter gun control laws just want a society with no rules and everyone carrying guns all the time."

  1. **Appeal to Authority**

*Description*: This fallacy relies on the testimony of an authority figure, rather than providing solid evidence or reasoning.

*Example*: "Dr. Smith says that climate change is a hoax, so it must be true."

  1. **Circular Reasoning (Begging the Question)**

*Description*: This occurs when the conclusion of an argument is assumed in the premise, essentially restating the same idea in different words.

*Example*: "God exists because the Bible says so, and we know the Bible is true because it's the word of God."

  1. **False Dilemma (False Dichotomy)**

*Description*: This fallacy presents only two options when there are actually more available. It oversimplifies a complex situation.

*Example*: "You're either with us or against us."

  1. **Hasty Generalization**

*Description*: This involves making a sweeping generalization based on insufficient evidence. It draws a conclusion about a whole group based on a small sample size.

*Example*: "I met one rude person from that country, so everyone from there must be rude."

  1. **Appeal to Ignorance**

*Description*: This fallacy claims that a statement must be true because it hasn't been proven false, or vice versa.

*Example*: "No one has proven that ghosts don't exist, so they must be real."

  1. **Post Hoc (False Cause)**

*Description*: This fallacy asserts that because one event occurred after another, the first event must have caused the second. It assumes causation without adequate evidence.

*Example*: "I wore my lucky socks and we won the game, so my socks must be lucky."

  1. **Slippery Slope**

*Description*: This fallacy suggests that a particular event will set off a chain reaction, leading to a much larger, usually negative, outcome.

*Example*: "If we allow same-sex marriage, next people will want to marry animals."

  1. **Red Herring**

*Description*: This involves diverting attention away from the main issue by introducing an unrelated topic or argument.

*Example*: "We should focus on solving unemployment, not on healthcare reform."

  1. **Appeal to Emotion**

*Description*: This fallacy attempts to manipulate emotions (fear, pity, love, etc.) in order to win an argument, often without providing any substantial evidence.

*Example*: "If we don't pass this law, think of all the children who will suffer!"

  1. **Genetic Fallacy**

*Description*: This fallacy involves judging the merit of an idea or claim based on its origin or source.

*Example*: "You shouldn't read that book, it was written by a criminal."

Recognizing logical fallacies is an important skill in critical thinking and argumentation. It helps ensure that arguments are based on sound reasoning and evidence rather than misleading tactics.

Key takeaways:

Cognitive distortions: exaggerated or irrational thought pattern

Logical fallacies: Flaws in reasoning that make an argument invalid

  continue reading

62 episoder

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